Reading Timothy Njoya’s ‘We the People’

I wanted to read this book as soon as it was published in 2017.  I did not get to it until recently.  I was nudged by Timothy Njoya’s absolutely brilliant and thought-provoking tweets. I wanted to understand more of what fires his thinking and philosophy. There was never a dull moment in reading this book. At some points, I found myself laughing out loud, other times realizing how painful it is to be a Kenyan, other times infuriated by the follies of the Kenyan State, and yet other times filled with immense joy about the spirit of Kenyan peoples. This blog post is a reflection on some of the main ideas/issues Njoya engages with.


  1. The Lancaster Constitution, the  church, Mashujaa heroes and heroines

According to Njoya, the above were the major stumbling blocks to the transformation of Kenya. Independence or Uhuru has led Kenyans from one pitfall to the other, to the extent that it feels that they are locked in a permanent struggle for social justice.  Kenya was/is (depending on how you see it), colonised by the British.  It transitioned from Arab slave trade, to the property of the Imperial British East African Company, to the Kenya government and finally, to the post-independence government(s). At independence, the British rounded up Kenyan elites to London to allegedly, craft a new constitution for Kenya. In reality the constitution was crafted by a British academic.  The delagates were there to rubber stamp. The one group that walked out of the sham was the Maasai delegates after they realized that this constitution would not revoke the Anglo-Maasai agreements in which they lost huge amounts of land, livestock, and lives.  The Lancaster constitution conceptualized the people as property.  According to Njoya:

This blatant treatment of people as property, moving them from the hands of slave masters into the hands of colonial masters and then into the hands of a totalitarian state, contravened the doctrine of self-determination as defined by the Treaty of Versailles and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, which says that everyone has the right to be treated as a person and not as a thing.

The church supported colonialism, slavery, and totalitarian regimes. The church also vehemently opposed the 2010 constitution. As for the Mashujaa heroes and heroines, they believed that independence was an end in itself but as Franz Fanon has shown, independence  plunged Africans into “independence depression”.

Image Source: Wikipedia

2. Kenya as a racially segregated society 

Kenya was and is a settler colony. The defining element of colonialism was the entrenchment of racial hierarchy as a tool for facilitating land grabs, subjugation of indigenous peoples, and legitimizing white authority in conquered lands. Njoya argues that from the beginning of British occupation, Kenya was structured and established as a market where everything and everyone had a price. The racial market was/is structured thusly:

White males ranked first and white females second; Indian males third and Indian females fourth; Arab males fifth and Arab females sixth; Somali males seventh and Somali females eighth; and finally, African males ninth and African females tenth. This legalized ranking of people according to their market value—which also determined how much each race was entitled to eat and mate—has been dubbed “racism” or “negative ethnicity.” This skewed piling of people into a pyramid based on their monetary value portrays the whole of Kenya like our snowcapped Mount Kenya; like a mountain capped with white people standing erect at the summit; like a glans stiffened by sucking blood from the races standing below.

Mt. Kenya

What has changed since the acquisition of Uhuru? I think the only change, if it can be referred as such, is the following: The top remains white, followed closely by the political elite (honorary whites), then wildlife (especially the so-called big five), the Indian males…the rest remains unchanged.  The whites remain at the top. This is manifested  best through land, which was one of the central pillars of the struggle for independence. The remnants of white settlers and other kind of settlers are some of the biggest land owners in the Kenyan colony. White settlers are to be found in places such as Nanyuki, Naivasha, and Timau.


One o the most depressing places to drive through in Kenya, is Timau. You look to theft of the road, you see farms that stretch to the horizon – your eyes cannot see the end. You look to the right, you see the same thing. And your heart sinks because you know those farms are not owned by indigenous Kenyans. When you look to the left, you see white privilege. When you look to the right, you see white privilege. You are engulfed. What do you do? Go ask for a job to harvest wheat? Is it really ethical, morally right, normal, just, etc, for anyone to own hundreds of thousands of acres of land in Kenya? A country where some of those who survived the war in the forest did not get any of the land they sacrificed their lives for? A country in which landlessness is rife? A country in which landlessness was worsened by ethnic tensions in places like the Rift Valley, where communities who had been dislocated by the colonials in their territories ended up? The morally bankrupt willing seller willing buyer argument does not quite help us address the question above.

IMG_4009I ranked wildlife as no 3 in the present day racial hierarchy, because it is associated with those who occupy the apex of the race pyramid. Ownership of large tracts of land is tied to the establishment of conservancies. The name conservancy brings to mind the saga centred around Delamare’s Soysambu Conservancy and the murder of Robert Njoya, for trying to hunt an antelope. In this case alone, you can understand the history of land dispossession, white privilege, racial hierarchy, the romanticization of wildlife conservation, and structural poverty.



3. A society defined by cascading oppression 

In Kenya, you find a society where extreme wealth and poverty are juxtaposed dramatically.  The masses at the bottom of the mountain are poor, and the wealthy at the summit have used every tactic in the book to keep the poor at the bottom of the mountain. One of the other evil ideas of the colonial state is the creation of ethnicity, which is just the same as racism. The idea that some people are better than others. This has openly gotten entangled with and into politics – the politics of death and destruction.  And you have communities fighting each other because their respective ethnic lords have told them other communities are their enemies. According to Njoya, this is a good manifestation of the market and property ideology because:

In a market where everybody is property and the culture dictates that everyone own someone else, the slaves and the poor find it easier to own each other than to liberate themselves from their owners. Freire acknowledged that the struggle of slaves, tribes, the colonized, and the poor is actually the struggle to share their oppression.

Wanjiku divided

As poor and oppressed spend all their time and energy hating and fighting each other, the rich and the oppressors get richer and consolidate power. Then they throw crumbs your way and tell you that you are their “people” or they are “helping you”. They poor and oppressed will not find time to understand the cause of their misery? Where is the time?  If you try and point this out, you will be probably called a traitor or a hater.


4. Miseducation of the people 

This book is one of the best critiques of the Kenyan education system there is. Njoya demonstrates how education has been used to entrench oppression through concrete examples. Since the colonial occupation, the African is reduced to a non-thinking being. Remember,  white supremacists believed that African brains stopped growing at 9 years old.  Therefore, there was no need to get them to think of complex ideas, to engage in philosophy, or theory.  Those were reserved for the white brain, which was or is more developed -allegedly.  After independence, the state carries on the with the same system of education. There is no fundamental change. I call it A for Apple education.


Education helps create a divide in society where : “the top class of the privileged, totalitarian, and parasitical few who owned and consumed everything, and the bottom majority that produced everything and ate nothing.”  Nyayo torture  chambers were constructed by Kenyan city planners, engineers, architects, and surveyors, Njoya argues. Thus, their education had not helped them to question anything, but rather to be obedient. Trust and obey! The Nyayo torture chambers were used to brutalize thinkers. They were in the group those that Moi referred to as  “radicals, dissidents, Marxists, atheists, malcontents, and disgruntled.”  Njoya further points out that the school system was a pre-Nyayo chamber where critical thinking was discouraged, where brutalization of the mind was celebrated.  Infact, most people leave school totally traumatized and do not want to see a book ever again.  Has anybody ever conducted a study about why students burn books after completing high school? Education entrenches the colonial idea of a person as property  in the form of  “laborers, taxpayers, or voters, rather than their intrinsic worth as human beings.”


What is the point of education? Is education not supposed to make us the very best version of ourselves, to make us into responsible members of society  who care about justice and equality for all? In school I learnt that Mt. Kenya was discovered by Ludwig Krapf! Utter nonsense.  In history, homeguards and collaborators were presented as freedom fighters. Has anything changed?  In the Moi years (1978-2002), the best thinkers were killed or exiled, while others joined politics. Professors became some of the most shocking Moi psychophants of all time. Others joined politics essentially turning parliament into the “graveyard of intellectualism.”


5. Religion as a tool for oppression 

I must say it was quite refreshing to read a critique of the church from a reverend.  He speaks honestly and courageously about the failings of thee church- all of which I agree with. I have three blogs on my misgivings with colonial Christianity: here, here, and here.  Njoya argues that the church and state coalesed to oppress the masses by stupefying them into devotion to their oppression. He confesses: ” Knowing that religion can be a stupefier and yet making religion my career was the greatest of all the conflicts within me.”  One is tempted to ask – just how Christian are Kenyan Christians, when you have cases of Christians butchering each other in churches (as happened in Kiambaa).  He also acknowledges the role of Christianity in the slave trade, colonial conquest, and of course, post-independence oppression.


6. The laugh out loud moments

As I said at the beginning, there are many laughter-inducing sections of this book.  I often found myself giggling or laughing out loud. This is derived from the a participatory sermon he conducted.  A druken man walks into the church. Njoya asks him: Why did you come to church?

The drunken man said, “I came to ask you to christen our nameless rivers and lakes! The city council has allowed its broken sewer system to form rivers and lakes on our roads and in shops, schools, and homes!” “With what names would you like me to baptize them?” I asked the drunken man.

Someone else in the congregation shouted, “Baptize them with big names!” Furious, the drunken man retorted, “Why are you afraid to say they should be christened River Moi and the Lake Kenyatta?”


8. Kenyan politicians as merchants of death

During one of his interactive sermons Njoya asks the congregation this: Who is an MP? A woman provides a swift answer:

“The MP is the man who digs potholes on tarmac roads so that his sons’ construction companies can secure state contracts to fill the potholes with mud.”

The politicians who are close to top of the pyramid truly the merchants of death – both metaphorically and in reality. The answer by this woman illustrates a death of trust for politicians who are elected to represent the interests of the people. Digging potholes on the tarmac can also be understood as other forms of economic plunder that are designed to enrich the rich and impoverish the impoverished. No other career is more lucrative than being a politician in Kenyan today. Politicians fly around in choppers…actually, I would extend the quote of this woman and say – …potholes with mud, and then not use the road, and instead, use helicopters to fly around. If they use the road, then they use huge 4wd Germany-made or Japan-made vehicles which do not feel the mud-filled potholes! The contempt with which politicians treat Kenyans is astonishing and deeply hurtful. Njoya brings it home when he writes that: “In Kenya, those who are not victims of physical violence have their psyches hurt by the theft of public resources. ”

helicopter Kenya
Kenyan Politicans’ helicopters: Image Source – The Standard

They are also the merchants of death through instigating communities to kill each other so that they can gain political mileage.  The 2007/08 post-election case is instructive:

 In order for Kibaki, the Trojan horse, to retain power, and for Raila, the most promising, to gain power, they used the elections to incite the people to kill each other. These were the very same people who had never rioted for food, even when hundreds died of hunger.

Njoya describes politicians as “roundworms” and “tapeworms”. They are joined in sucking the blood of the host (Kenyans), by western donors who he refers to as “ringworms”.  What shall we refer the Chinese as? Hookworms? This is a book that should be read by all. If I was teaching, I would make this a required text.








Field Marshall Muthoni, the woman.

When a human being spends eleven years of their lives in the forest, braving the elements and using their bodies to physically fight for the freedom of a nation, you know that this person is a real badass. Especially when she is the only woman to have been given the title Field Marshall. So when you sit at the feet of this warrior, who Dedan Kimathi called the Weaver Bird because of her ability to weave brilliant strategy, you expect the ferocity that stares out from her unflinching steely eyes.

But nothing prepares you for how funny Field Marshall Muthoni is.

It begins with Ngartia’s hair. Before we’ve taken our first sip of the sweet milky chai, she has already thrown shade at the blonde dreads that skulk across one side of his scalp. Only when she chuckles do we allow our own nervous giggles to escape. This isn’t quite…

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How poverty is created: A case study of me

Let me begin by saying that there nothing I detest more than the idea of race. Really. It is one of the most stupid ideas on earth.  If I had never felt discriminated because of my race, I would not take much interest in it. I would say, let us all get on with it. Let me tell you a story – my first encounter with out-and-out racism. I had just finished my undergraduate degree – back in the day. We were required to do an internship as a prerequisite for graduation.  I struggled for a while before I found one.  The whole search process was humiliating and stressful. My worst experience was at USAID. I was not even allowed to go past the gate. The guards were pretty hostile and refused to take my documents. Dejected, I walked back thinking to myself – if getting an internship is this difficult, then getting a job is going to be an impossibility.
A friend of mine suggested that I try going to an Italian NGO where their friend was working. I did not call them to book an appointment. Somebody will ask – why not just book an appointment? Students leaving university at that time did not have money nor mobile phones, and those days internet was a luxury. It still is.  Anyway,  I just went and walked in into their offices. I thank the guard at the gate, because he did not try to block me or frustrate my efforts. I walked into the building, then asked the receptionist for directions. There were two organizations based in that building. She asked me to walk to the end of the hall.  Somehow, I ended up in the directors office.  His door was open, so I just knocked and got in. The white man (Italian) behind the desk looked at me from head to toe. I  introduced myself and told him that I was looking for an internship. He sent me to the program manager. I got the internship and they employed me after the internship ended.
That was my first job and this was a catholic church based organization, engaged in humanitarian work – poverty reduction et al.  The pay for all the Kenyan staff was pathetic. We all knew it. The white staff were paid huge sums of money and lived in Muthaiga (one of the posh suburbs of Nairobi). My salary was KES 15,000/USD 150 per month. An Italian intern earned KES 300,000/USD 3,000 per month or so, the Kenyan staff said. Nobody really knew what the Italian staff earned- it was top secret.  But they drove 4 WD cars and lived in Muthaiga. They went home for lunch, while we ate air burgers for lunch. I lived in a one-roomed house with an toilet (pit latrine) & bathrooms that was shared by maybe, 15 other tenants.  After paying rent and transport, I was left with very little or next to nothing really. I was living on the edge of starvation. I was working hard, trying to prove myself. Then, the organization got funding for an educational project.
I started thinking that maybe my salary would be improved. I knew how much money was in the budget, since I was involved in putting it together. I thought I deserved a raise. So, I went to my white boss and told him that I think I should be paid KES 30,000/USD 300.  All hell broke loose! It was pandemonium! He raised his voice. He shouted. I do not even remember what he was saying, but that was not the reaction I was expecting. I think he was basically saying that he could not give me the raise. I actually thought he would fire me. I was so worried. He did not fire me.  I started thinking – what makes my boss react like that when I ask him for a raise? What makes the white intern get more than me by far, never mind that we the African staff are the ones who have show her the ropes – and actually work more than her? What else could it be other than my skin colour? That incident made me realize that the colour of my skin would always work against me. You do not have to leave Africa to experience racism.
One day a family member came to visit me and found that there was sewage flowing from the toilet and spreading to where our houses.. houses hehehe rooms were situated. My room was adjacent to the toilet. I think the landlord had tried to empty the toilet and somehow the contents spilled out or something. It was one of those toilets where the contents are floating so close to the hole that you dare not look down. You just do your business and leave. My family member was horrified. She told me that I should start looking for a new place to live (one with a toilet inside).  I told her I could not afford it. She told me she would try her best to help me pay the rent.  I knew she did not have the money either, but I moved out  with the hope that I would find a better job. I ended up in a house that was poorly constructed.  After a while, water started seeping through the freshly painted  walls  and they became mouldy. My clothes  became mouldy too, because the wall was the closet heheehh! After the shouting incident with my Italian boss,  I  had started looking for another job seriously. All my evenings were spent applying for jobs. I told everyone I knew that I was looking for a job.  After 2 years, or so, I found  a much better one at a conservation NGO. This was not without its pitfalls either. I was just talking with my colleague about it the other day and we were ruminating about the fact th the salary of the two top white bosses was more than all the salaries of the 12 Kenyan members of staff put together. Race! Story for another day.
I badly wanted to move from the Italian NGO that was engaged in missionary-related humanitarian work for various reasons. 1. I found the contradictions of using Christianity as a tool for entrenching oppression unbearable. Every morning the white bosses would call for a prayer session – we needed to start the day with Christ! I started boycotting those prayers, because I thought Jesus would have wanted me to live a better life, which could be made possible by a better salary.  But my white bosses had sort of placed a cap to what the African staff could earn.  Oyunga Pala refers to this kind of phenomenon as the “black ceiling”. No amount of sucking up would melt the hearts of the white bosses. Some of my colleagues tried different strategies – like taking them to their homes to see how the live, or zealously participating in the missionary activities – prayer retreats and the like. Not even speaking English with an Italian accent worked. Not even picking up their mannerisms like Italian hand gesturing. None of that worked!  Technically, we were all field niggers. There were a few house niggers, who they used to keep us (the field niggers) in check.  Some of the dog treats thrown their way were trips to Italy, and higher salaries, of course. But their salaries and life styles were nowhere near our Italian masters. They also tried to bamboozle us with occasional outings to eat pizza.  Now might be a good time to watch Malcom X’s beautiful illustration on the difference between field niggers and house niggers. Watch that before proceeding, because I make reference to that metaphor later. Its just a 5 minute clip :)!
Where was I? Oh the reasons for wanting to leave. Reason no 2 was that I was working in Kibera( an informal urban settlement), and I could not understand this:  how come the more NGO’s you have the more poverty you have? Everywhere you look in Kibera, you find an NGO. I think there is an industry of poverty, that thrives from poverty, and that is determined to ensure that poverty is sustained. If there is no poverty, what will all the NGOs and white expats do?  Reason no 3 was that I wanted to get into conservation-that is where my interest lies.  But back to the Italian NGO – I have just remembered more things that I wanted to tell you.  Our Italian masters always spoke in Italian, to  lock out the field niggers from the conversation.  I resented Italian. I still resent Italian. I equate the language with oppression.  They try to colonize the African stuff with Italianism. For instance, in one of their school projects in Kibera, they make the kids perform a play based on Pinocchio, the Italian wooden puppet fictional character. What could be more far removed from the reality of life for these kids. They would not want to perform anything from their respective cultures, because, as we all know, African cultures are barbaric. This Pinocchio business was led by one of the Italian bosses, whose job title was ‘Pedagogist’.  There were other teachers in that school of course, but this one had a special job title. I thought every teacher is a pedagogist? Yawn!
One day I was having a conversation with my colleagues. All of us hated our masters.  Even those that smiled at them and joked with them hated them. Everyone lamented about how unjust they were. How evil they were. Then, one of us fouled the air by saying the following: But, if it were not for them, you would have no job. We all started talking about other things after that. This how oppression and poverty get entrenched.  When people have no option. Because the government has created conditions ripe for exploitation from all sorts of quarters.  You cannot even talk about your oppression without being dragged into a guilt trip. Actually, I now realize that this oppression had dehumanised us.  One time, we went to visit one of our projects in Huruma (another urban informal settlement) in Nairobi. Our white boss  ‘the pedagogist’ gave us a ride in her  Toyota Rav. 4 , which she kept referring to as “my car”, and which she no doubt, loved more than us the field niggers. As we were leaving the project, she reversed into a tree and shattered the rear windshield. We performed a great skit of hypocrisy. We told her how sorry we were.  We touched the Rav and said uh and ah!  It was all hogwash. Later on, we rejoiced! One of my colleagues was even dramatizing the “event” to those that were not there. And we would all laugh! Some even said – it is too bad that it did not hit the body. It should have left a bigger dent! We were the field niggers, who would pray for the breeze to fuel the fire that was burning the master’s house.  This situation had reduced us to people who rejoice at the misfortune of others!
I resented my Italian bosses. All of them – from top to bottom.  Even the interns were my bosses – because they are white or think they are white. One day, I went to work – I am hard worker, by the way.  I strive to give my best. If my former Italian masters get to read this, I doubt that they will say I am lazy person who does not deliver. And that was not even my finest work, because my motivation was somewhere close to zero.  I was at work quite early that day.  One of the interns walked past me. I do not recall if she said something and I did not respond,  or what  triggered what happened next.  She was ahead of me and took the stairs to her office. As I took the first step of the stairs, she turned around and started yelling. She was sort of jumping up and down and her hair was bouncing up and down.  She established a hierarchy. She was at the top of the stairs and I was at the bottom. I was dumbfounded. I cannot even remember all the things she said, but one thing she said stuck to my mind: you may think you are so important, but you are not. You are nothing!  
I did not say a word. She finished her rant and walked to her office – in a huff! I walked up the stairs slowly and went to our office. We shared a space with other colleagues – all Africans. They found me there crying on my desk. They asked me what was wrong. Amidst tears, I told them how the intern had yelled at me, without any provocation at all. The mood in the office that day was sombre! I loved our solidarity. When one was wounded, it is like we were all wounded! I was waiting for her to report me to the main boss and for me to be fired. It did not happen. I  never talked to her ever after that. She left the organization before I did.  The Italian gang had perfected the art of raising their voices at the African staff. It was a strategy at intimidating us and putting us in our place, and it worked.  Nobody dared challenge them. We were all scared of losing our jobs. Recall that even getting an internship is difficult enough, so nobody wants to lose their  job no matter how pathetic is.  I now must point out that it is imperative for people working in NGO’s to seriously consider unionizing! I need to write another blog on this.
When I got the job I mentioned earlier, I left this Italian mafia (that is how some of us used to call them & one of my colleagues referred to the main boss as Mussolini), in the middle of the month.  I wrote my resignation letter and gave it to my colleague to give it to  Mussolini.  I think it was a three line letter.  In the letter, I told him to keep my salary – I did not want it.  Not because I had a lot of money. No! I just did not want him to say that I had not given a month’s notice. I had to borrow money to survive that month. After he received the letter, he called me incessantly. I refused to pick his calls. He was probably calling to yell at me, and I did not want to give him the satisfaction and neither did I feel like yelling back.  We are told that we should say nice things about our employers, because we need their recommendations for other jobs. That you should not burn bridges, etc.  While I do understand the thinking behind this, I do not agree with the embedded assumption and logic. What if your employer was horrible? Should you lie and say they were just great? It is this logic that has entrenched massive suffering of people in Africa and other dispossessed regions of the world.  It is this logic that tells us that:
1. You should not complain, because you have a job. There are those that do not. Yes, of course. We should all be grateful for the crumbs that are thrown our way.  It is this logic that makes child labour possible – at least the children are making money sewing garments and making mobile phones for us.
2. NGO’s are do-gooders. Missionaries are do-gooders. There is a group of Africans who do a show called NGO means Nothing Going On. I am increasingly skeptical of the whole NGO industrial complex.  Yes, there are good and bad NGO’s, of course.  But it is this logic that NGO’s and missionaries are doing good that entrenches poverty. I hope you have understood about how poverty is created. None of my Italian masters were or are poor. But we the Africans were/are poor. We were impoverished by the NGO.  NGOs and missionaries  also entrench white supremacy and the idea of white benevolence. That is why kids can get molested by missionaries, but you have people defending the missionaries, because they cannot understand how a white missionary can do such a thing. That is why British soldiers can rape Samburu women, but instead of sympathizing with the victims, the women get ostracized from their community.
I spoke to  an elder who told me that when they worked in settler farms during the colonial period in Kenya, they were fed on something they referred to as ‘mathache’. This is what remains of milk after they whip it up and remove all the cream. It is like water,  really. The African took care of the cows, milked the cows, then whipped the milk to remove all the cream, and gave everything to the British. Then, the British gave them mathache!  They also  grew the maize and harvested everything and gave it to the British. Then, the British gave them the rotten maize in the form of flour. This was rationed.  Several scholars have pointed out Europeans in Africa believed that an adult African was the equivalent of a 9-year old European. They argued that the brain of the African was underdeveloped. That the African was like a lobotomised European.  It was believed that the African did not need much to survive. That is why they gave them little food. Malnutrition was rife! This elder looked me in the eye and told me the following: I joined the Mau Mau in the forest to fight for independence, because I was tired of being a slave on our very own land. I was tired of eating mathache!
The Italian mafia fed me mathache!
And these personal experiences stay with me because I feel it is so,so grossly unjust.  I think I am fully convinced that no white person is in Africa is there to help Africans.  The ‘Tribe of the West’, as Ngugi wa Thiong’o refers to them, is there to help itself. There are people who have grown extremely wealthy through the industry of poverty.  The NGO industry is so powerful. In Kenya, I think the NGO industry is more powerful than the government. It is a parallel government, that seems to be providing services that the government should be providing.  As a result, people lose faith in the government and think NGO’s are on their side. But are they? All this happens because the government is weak and we have bad leadership.  Is it not because bad governance that the Italian mafia could give me and others mathache!?

The Mbwa Kali Culture & its discontents

In his book ‘Detained’ Ngugi wa Thiong’o writes that he was once asked to write a book about the culture of white settlers in Kenya. He argues that at first, he did not believe that these settlers had any culture, and therefore, he did not see how he could produce a book out nothingness. Why?  They settlers produced very little art because they were too busy “whoring, hunting, and drinking”. How about science? Here the settlers would brag about Leakey, who loved the archaeological remains of dead Africans more than living Africans.  The Leakey’s “hated Africans and proposed ways of killing off nationalism, while praising skulls of dead Africans as precursors of humanity.”  But after being tossed into a maximum security prison by the Kenyan state, he gave this more thought. And realized that the settlers actually did produce a culture:

The colonial system did produce a culture- a culture of legalized brutality, a ruling class-culture of fear, the culture of oppressing minority desperately trying to impose total silence on a restive oppressed majority. This culture was sanctified in the colonial administration of PC, DC, DO, Chiefs, right down to the askari. – This was the Mbwa Kali culture.

Image Source: Greyhorn

I want to reflect on the Mbwa Kali culture as manifested in Kenyan society today.  All the various defining elements of this culture are clearly visible in the following ways:

  1. Governance

Ours is still a colonial state. We are dripping with coloniality from every pore.  Did we not get uhuru in 1963!? No, we did not. We got what Walter Rodney refers to as “flag independence”.  Read Fanon’s chapter on ‘the pitfalls of national consciousness‘ to understand why we really do not have any independence. The Mau Mau were fighting for total economic emancipation and freedom. Do you have that? The only group of people who have that, is the political class and associates (both local and foreign).  The  flag independence governments completely act like the colonial government. The political class represents the white settlers who lived large from the taxes and sweat and blood of the masses of the African population. You do not have to be white to be a colonialist. At the core of the colonial administration, was to treat the Africans with total contempt. The government was something mysterious and impenetrable. That is why it is called Serikali, which is a distortion of siri kali, meaning big secret. The government lords over the people, never serves them, or cares for them. The British were more interested in serving the British, and not the Kenyans who were paying taxes and slaving on the stolen land. The same kind of attitude permeates governance from top to bottom today.  This is what NASA refers to as “the culture of madharau“.


2. General rudeness in public service

Do you ever look forward to go to any public office? You are most likely going to be confronted with arrogance, intimidation, and emotional torture. You will find this behaviour in schools or other institutions of learning – the teacher or lecturer is never to be questioned; in hospitals – the doctors and nurses will yell at patients, in matatus – no rules there. The huduma centres are good because they help save the public from encountering public officials, whose salaries are paid by their taxes, to provide services that they deserve, but treat them like dirt.  Mbwa Kali culture!



3.  The police

This one deserves its own category, because I think it is the exemplification of  what Ngugi was referring to as “legalized brutality” above. Do you ever look forward to being stopped by the police on the road? Do you look forward to going to the police station to report anything?

Image Source: Radiolab

4. Mbwa Kali Signage

This is mainly found in white people’s homes in places like Karen. These signs are prominently positioned at the gate and are primarily directed at Africans. Keep off our white property !


Fierce dog baring teeth


5. General culture of fear and submission

Let us whisper so that they do not hear us! You cannot fight the government! Do not joke with the government! Just lie low! Do not talk back! Do not ask questions! Just smile! 70 years of British colonialism and 54 years of Black European colonialism, buttressed by Christianity (the pyschological arm of colonialism), have entrenched the culture of fear and submission in Kenya. It is so bad that when Kenyans find an out spoken person, they say that person is proud and arrogant – even if that person is asking why doesn’t every Kenyan have access to clean drinking water or access to good public health care.  They also say that person has been paid by donors (read – white people), to disturb the peace!  Kenyans will celebrate the person when they are dead. A good example is Prof. Wangari Maathai. People said she was mad, a loud woman who does not know her place, and arrogant. All she was saying is that we should protect forests, we should strive for better governance, we should stop land grabbing by politicians, etc.  But she was vilified and humiliated. The very best Wangari Maathai became in Kenya, is Assistant Minister for environment. That is basically a portfolio-less position. We are a country that cannibalizes its best and brightest.  All this happens because of coloniality.  And when you try to talk about colonialism, you are told that you are stuck in the past. That you should stop blaming the white man.  So, instead of teaching history – a thorough interrogation of history, kids are taught CRE and IRE. Both Islam and Christianity emphasize humility and meekeness.  Given the multiple oppressions facing African peoples, meekness and humility are not skills that should be encouraged or celebrated. It is because of meekness that Africans have been swindled of their resources over and over again.  Meekness transforms Africans into the greatest defenders of their oppressors.  Try critiquing white supremacy in the presence of a Kenyan and watch the reaction carefully.

Image Source: Thought Co

Read this passage from Ngugi wa Thiongo’s ‘Detained’, and tell me if it is not an accurate representation/reflection of Kenyan society.

Obedience of the oppressed to the oppressor; peace and harmony between the exploited and the exploiter; the slave to love his master and pray that God grant that the master may long reign over us; these were the ultimate aesthetic goals of colonial culture carefully nurtured by nailed boots, police truncheons and military bayonets and by the carrot of a personal heaven for a select few. The end was to school Kenyans in the aesthetic of submission and blind obedience to authority reflected in the Christian refrain, trust and obey:

Trust and obey

For there is no other way

To be happy in Jesus

But to trust and obey.

How about we create a revolution of  radical kindness and compassion towards each other?  That might be a way of eliminating coloniality.
How about we encourage a thorough interrogation of history? You cannot solve any problem if you do not understand its cause.

Christianity and conservation:The great divergence

Christianity is a big set back for conservation and by extension, community livelihoods. Why?

1. It all begins in the story of creation with the dramatic expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden. From then on, human beings and nature are thought of as separate. They cannot coexist. Human beings are seen as threat to nature. This logic drives and informs oppressive conservation practices, such as removal of communities from their land (and by extension livelihoods), to create National Parks and the like.


2. This logic of separation of man and nature is further pushed into conservation practice, through the separation of culture and nature. We begin to look at them as different things. But in many cultures, they are intrinsically linked. This logic results in communities being denied access to sacred sites, for example. Because it is believed they will destroy them. That is a livelihood issues. Livelihood is more than just food. It is is about total well-being.


3. Then, there is the passage of: go forth, multiply, fill the earth, subdue and conquer it. This has been severely detrimental to the earth. Because of this logic, human beings have blown up mountains in search of gold, created ugly scars on earth in search of diamonds, poisoned rivers, filled the ocean with plastic bags, hunted animals such as the dodo (in Mauritius) to extinction. This passage tells human beings that they have the power to do whatever with nature. As a result, human beings have defiled the earth. The climax of this defilement is seen in climate change and its catastrophic impacts. Many have died of floods, drought, and so on. Many have no food. I hear Cape Town is running out of water!


4. And my personal favourite -THIS WORLD IS NOT MY HOME, I AM JUST PASSING BY. Now, this one, just like no 3 above, has been a disaster for the planet. Why should I care about the earth if I am just passing by. I can bulldoze my way through it. After all, my treasures are laid in heaven! I can clear-cut all the forests, and not care about whether people get water or not. I can dump toxic wastes in the water. I can litter everywhere, because heaven will be full of gold, and it will be white and clean. I will dance with white angels there. Oh haleluhya! I can privatize water and sell it in bottles and call it “Mineral water”. I can privatize seeds and sell them to farmers, and sue any farmer who tries to save those seeds to plant in the next season. I can hunt down every animal for trophys. This world is not my home, I am just passing by. I might as well do so in style. Make a big impact. Boom!


5. Lastly, when missionaries came to Africa, they told Africans that their ways of worship were devilish. Some of these ways of worship entailed performing prayers and sacrifices under trees, in forests, and other places of spiritual importance. Some of these sacred spaces were around water catchment areas and these belief systems kept them completely out of bounds. This ensured that there was water for all. Christianity up-ends of these belief systems, and trees are cut down to construct churches. Churches are even constructed on some of these sacred sites, hence burying that tradition. And now who stays without water as a result of this environmental destruction? Africans.

Is Jesus going to bring us water? Jesus comes from a very dry environment. Is he going to prioritize Africans over his home area? 🤔🤔🤔🤔🤔


Why Colonial Christianity is the No. 1 problem in Africa: An illustration

I posted the blurb below on facebook a few days ago. I want to explain myself further by drawing from concrete examples.

Christianity is the no 1 problem in Africa. If it is not no 1, it is certainly in the top 3. Christianity is used to entrench oppression of African peoples. All our leaders are “God fearing”? The Christian God is a paradox. The most intolerant people you will ever encounter are Christians, especially the born again variety. Zambians are praying because they have a cholera outbreak. Zambians were praying a few years ago because they had no electricity. In Kenya, we have something called a national prayer breakfast which is led by politicians who are responsible for all the misery and suffering of the Kenyan population. They meet in posh hotels and stuff their mouths with sausages and sing hymns to the Christian God. And we say we are a Christian nation. What Christian values do we live by? We have more churches than schools, universities and hospitals combined in Kenya. Christianity has destroyed Africa because it hinders thinking completely. All the major political parties in Kenya in the last election were using Christian sloganeering. Never mind that there are many people in Kenya who are not Christians, but since the Christian God is the best, the rest should just fall in line. Poverty of ideas and high degrees of insensitivity. One of the few respectable Kenyan retired clergy, Rev. Timothy Njoya refers to this behaviour as “mocking God.” Christianity tells Africans that no weapon formed against them will prosper. Unfortunately, slavery prospered, Slavery is prospering in Libya and the Middle East, colonialism prospered, neocolonial encirclement is prospering, misgovernance is prospering, even the clergy are prospering at the expense of the people.

Example 1: The Kipande 

I once visited an elder who has a home museum. He has got a collection of impressive objects created by Africans before the encounter with colonialism.  It was at this Museum that I saw the Kipande for the first time. The Kipande was metallic container that those worked in settler farms in colonial Kenya wore around their necks.  His son explained to me how you would not get a job (from another white settler), without providing a reference letter from another settler. In other words, you would not be enslaved on your own land without approval from the person who stole your land. He opened the tin and pulled out a long document that contained approvals, permissions, and so on. This was his father’s Kipande. His father, whose hearing was deteriorating sat nearby and looked on. The son explained to me how the Kipande was a tool for humiliation, and why it was one of the main issues in the struggle against British imperialism in Kenya.  He then told me how the church wanted to ex-communicate his father. Reason? He was accused of having witchcraft because of the objects that he collected and kept in his home. The father did not want to be ex-communicated from the church. He was ready to burn all those objects. Then, the pastor asked him to bring all the objects to the church so that they could inspect them. So, he packed all his objects and went and set up a sort of exhibition in the church compound.  The pastor and the congregants looked at the objects and thought they were harmless. He survived the ex-communication.  When missionaries came to Africa at the beginning of the colonial period, they told Africans that all their creations are witchcraft and primitive.  They were to be destroyed.  The same missionaries collected some of  these objects and you will find them scattered in Museums around Europe and North America. Yes, of course, they make money from this African witchcraft and primitiveness.  In this elder’s collection, you will find evidence of very strong cultures and African creative genius. You will find evidence that Africans were forging objects out of iron, well before the encounter with colonialism. Assuming the church had not been reasonable, this elder would have destroyed this collection. That would have denied me an opportunity to touch a kipande and see it up-close. My encounter with that Kipande greatly shaped my research interest in anti-colonial struggles in relation to conservation, environmental justice, the protection of African heritage, etc.  The colonial version of Christianity remains the greatest threat to the protection of African heritage.  A lot of  African objects have been destroyed due to the influence of Christianity. Hence, an African will grow up thinking that Africans have never invented or created anything. How do you find out that they did if all the stuff you see around comes from Europe, N. America, or China?

The Kipande

Example 2 : Nok Terracotta Sculptures 

I was attending the World Archaeological Congress last year where a delegate from Nigeria took the floor and started speaking about the threats to heritage conservation in that part of Africa.  He said that one of the major issues is the destruction of Nok Terracotta sculptures by both Christians and Muslims. When people find them in their gardens, they destroy them, because religious teachings of both faiths have convinced them that anything associated with African cultures is witchcraft. The culture of making these figures/sculptures was practiced for over 1,500 years.  Of course, if they are destroyed there is no chance for Africans to benefit from them in any way – e.g., research, education, or even cultural pride. In the meantime, antique hunters from Europe collect and make so much money from them.  Since Africans think it is witchcraft, they cannot benefit from this heritage in any way. Christianity is, therefore, in direct conflict with African prosperity in many dimensions – intellectually, economically, etc.

Nok Teraccotta Sculpture. Image Source: Muzeion

Example no 3: Gucugia Mwana 

A friend invited me to a beautiful ceremony known as Gucugia Mwana. This is a cultural practice of the Agikuyu people in Kenya. The ceremony is an opportunity for one’s grandmother to celebrate their grandchild.  In this case, the daughter brought her child to the mother’s home. The mother invites friends over – there is singing, dancing, and lots of food.  The baby is given gifts by the grandmother and others. They sing for the baby and rock the baby back and forth.  Most of the attendees in this ceremony were Christians and you could see the clash and tension between this cultural practice and Christianity.  It felt like the people were feeling guilty for practicing this culture, which I think is a beautiful thing, in terms of keeping the family together, celebrating life, keeping the society together. But, you could feel and see the tension.  Christianity makes Africans feel guilty for practicing African culture, even when it is something as harmless as Gucugia Mwana! So, Africans end up not singing their songs any more. All the songs are about praising Jesus. The African culture is killed or is stunted.  Christianity makes Africans either hate themselves and everything about themselves, or  makes them feel guilty – all the time.


Example 3:  Seed and food sovereignty

I was working with a certain community in Kenya last year. Over the course of this work, the community highlighted the pressure they were facing with regarding to abandoning their foods, seed preservation practices, pressure to use to pesticides to grow their crops and so on.  We agreed that it would be good to have a forum to discuss these issues and craft solutions. I spent a lot of time and energy looking for someone who understood the issues around global corporate capture of food production, imperialism, capitalism, neo-colonial encirclement,  and destruction of the community’s cultural infrastructure. I needed somebody who spoke the local language, and who could explain these issues in a clear manner and relate them to the community’s daily struggles.  When I found a person who could this, we organized a full-day community workshop to interrogate these issues.  The facilitator opened the discussion by saying that we should remember our ancestors. Fair enough, I thought. The rest of the discussion was very interesting. At some point, some young men in the group raised an issue with the elders – they said that they felt confused because they got conflicting messages from their church and from other cultural expectations. One man said that his pastor says that paying dowry is wrong, and yet he is also expected to pay dowry-culturally. There were two pastors in the group. They could not offer him a satisfactory explanation on how to address this conflict. But that is not what I wanted to highlight through this example.  The fact that Christianity is in direct clash with African culture has been established in the earlier examples.  Two days after the workshop, one community member called me and told me that some of those who attended the workshop were not happy, because I brought them a non-believer (a non-Christian). What was the problem?  The facilitator has said that “we should remember our ancestors”. So, I called the pastor, who told me that yes, there was quibbling because “we are saved and we do not believe in that”. Now, you tell me, here we are – Africans are under siege from all sorts of mutli-national corporations, who do not even want them to save the seeds they harvest and plant them in the next season, who want the farmers to buy seeds from them every season, who want to enslave them and shackle them to poverty forever – but what concerns Africans most is that another African said that we should remember our ancestors?  Is it possible to be African and Christian at the same time or are they completely incompatible?


Example no 4: Governance 

I do not want to dwell on this one. I think the block quote at the beginning highlights how much of a problem this is.  The colonial governments used Christianity to entrench oppression in Africa. They said colonialism was the will of God.  Present day African leaders use exactly the same logic to bamboozle the people. It is not uncommon to hear Africans saying that leaders are “chosen by God”. So, all manner of despots use Christianity to entrench mass torture of the people they are supposed to be leading. When these despots and their sidekicks die, churches hold services for them – to pray so that they go to heaven.  Never mind that they made life a living hell for people right here on earth.  Christianity enables bad governance, which then entrenches poverty in Africa- both material poverty and the poverty of ideas. And the latter is worse than the former.



African Studies Association of Africa (ASAA) in Accra, Ghana, October 2017

Halimatou Hima

In terms of the pertinence of the debates, this was probably one of the best conferences I have attended thus far. In an era where discourse on decolonising academia is rightfully ever-present, this conference held at the University of Ghana, Legon in Accra does just that. Delocalising an African Studies conference back to the continent is in itself a revolutionary act. The field of African Studies had historically been (re)invented to look at Africa using a socio-anthropological and ethnographic lens to benefit and further the colonial agenda – sometimes distorting, ignoring, silencing, or simply failing to understand local knowledge systems. Scholars have contested this view by adding their voices to the field but also by questioning its very premises and redefining what it means to engage in ‘African Studies’. Africans writing about Africa and global affairs from gender issues to geopolitics predates the reinvention of the field of ‘African Studies’…

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